Many of the theories of motivation address issue introduced previously in these materials. The following provides a brief overview to any terms or concepts that have not been previously discussed.
1. Psychoanalytic Theories
The psychoanalytic theories of motivation propose a variety of fundamental influences. Freud (1990), suggested that all action or behavior is a result of internal, biological instinct that are classified into two categories : life (sexual) and death (aggression). (Freud,s , 1990 Beyond the pleasure principle, New York W, W Norton)
Many of freud`s student broke with him over this concept. For example, Erikson (1993 ) and Sullivan (1968) proposed that interpersonal and social relationships are fundamental (Eriksa, E 1993 childhood and society, New York : W.W Norton).
2. Humanistic theories
One of the most influential writers in the area of motivation is Abraham Moslow (1954)
According to Maslow, an individual is ready to act upon the growth needs if and only if the defiance needs are met
Moslow`s initial conceptualization ion include only one growth need self actualization. Self actualized people are characterized by.
1. Being problem focused
2. Incorporating an ongoing fresh ness of appreciation of live.
3. A concern about personal growth
4. The ability to have peak experience.
3. Cognitive Theories
There are several motivational theories that trace their roots to the information processing approach to learning.
There approaches focus on categories and labels people use help to identify thought emotion, disposition, and behavior.
In the cognitive theories, there are three part of this theories :
a. Cognitive dissonance theories
If we can create the appropriate amount of disequilibrium this will turn lead the individual changing his order behavior this theory was developed by Leon Festinger (1957)
b. Attribution theory (Heider 1958 : Weiner 1974)
This theory proposed that every individual tries to explain success or failure of self and other by offering certain attribution these attribution are either internal or external.
| || |
In a learning environment, it is important to assist the learning to develop a self attribution explanation of effort (internal, No control) as soon as the individual experiences some difficulties in the learning process, he or she will decrease appropriate learning behavior (i.e, I am not good at this)
c. Expectancy Theory (From, 1964) motivation is perceived probability of success (expectancy) connection of success and Reword (instrumentality) value of obtaining god (valance, value)
All of the variable above must be high in order for motivation and the resulting behavior to be high
To summarize the cognitive approaches, cognitive dissonance theory suggest that we will seek balance or homeostasis in our lives and will resist influences or expectation to change.
4. Social Learning
Social learning or observational theory suggest that modeling (imitating others) and vicarious learning (watching of hers have consequences applied to their behavior are important motivation of behavior.
5. Social cognition
Social cognition theory proposes reciprocal determination as a primary factor in both learning and motivation.
The environment, an individual behavior and characteristic of individual both influence and are influenced by each other two component.
6. Transpersonal or Spiritual Theories
Most of the theories deal with the meaning fullness of our live or ultimate meaning.
7. Achievement Motivation Theory
One aspect of this theory is that individuals are motivated to either avoid failure.