THE REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE
A. The Explanation of Theory
- The Definition of Motivation
What is motivation mean?
The word motivation is come from “motive” which meant as motiver or a vehicle of some body to do the activity to gain the aim. Its based to Mr. Sobri article “Peran guru dalam membangkitkan motivasi belajar”
But in the growth language dictionary (1990 : 50) it says” motivation is emerge that appear in the some body activity with the aim.”
“Dorongan yang timbul pada diri seseorang sadar atau tidak sadar untuk melakukan sesuatu tindakan dengan tujuan tertentu (kamus pembina pengembangan bahasa, 1990: 539)”
from other author like Mr. Achmadi (1997: 44)” Motivation is Emerge in the some body to do an activity to fill their needed”
Based to MC Donald (1959) says “Motivation is an energy change within the personal characterized by affective arousal and anticipatory goal reaction”.
The following definitions of motivation were gleaned from a variety psychology textbooks and reflect the general consensus that motivation is an internal state or condition (sometimes described as a need, desire, or want) that serve to activate or energize behavior and give it direction (see kleinginna and kleinginna, 1981 a).
v Internal state or condition behavior and give it direction.
v Desire or want that energizes and direct goal – Oriented behavior.
v Influence of needs and desires on the intensity and direction of behavior.
From Franken (1994) provides an additional component in his definition
v The arousal, direction and persistence of behavior.
While still not wider spread in terms of introductory psychology text books, many researchers are now beginning to acknowledge that factor that energize behavior are likely different from factors that provide for its persistence.
From the following definitions of motivation above we can concluse that motivation is all of the role condition, desire influence direction and persistence of that behavior guarantee the synergy of learning activity to gain the goals which is wanted.
The Importance of motivation.
Most motivation theorist assume that motivation is involved in the performance of all learned responses, that is, a learned behavior will not occur unless its energized. The major question among psychologists, in general, is whether motivation is a primary or secondary influence of behavior. That is, the changes in behavior better explained by principal environmental, ecological influences, perception memory, cognitive development emotion, explanatory style or personality or are concept unique to motivation more pertinent
Motivation has three important component keys. that are: move, direct, and support.
a. Move is meant emerge o power of individual
b. Direct is meant distribute the behavior
c. Support is meant that environment must reinforce the intensity and direct the push to the individual power
The function of motivation .
1. To give a push of the emerge of behavior, without motivation so it will not emerge a doing such as a studying
2. Influences is meant to direct a doing to gain a certain goals
3. The mover (as an engine in the car) a big or little of motivation will certain fast or slowly the works.
The goals of motivation
To move or to wake someone in order to emerge a wanted for doing some thing until he can get the result or he can gain the goal.
The source of motivation
In general, explanations regarding the sources of motivation can be categorized as either extrinsic (out side the person) or intrinsic (internal to the person).
Intrinsic sources and corresponding theories can be further subcategorized as either body / physical, mind /mental ( i.e, cognitive, affective, conative or trans personal / spiritual ).
The following chart provides a brief overviews of the different sources of motivation that have been studied. While initiation of action can be traced to each of these domains, it appear likely that initiation of behavior may be more related to emotion and/or the affective area (optimism vs. pessimism; self-esteem; etc) while persistence may be more related to conation (volition) or goal-orientation.
v Elicited by stimulus associated/connected to innately connected stimulus.
v Obtain desired, pleasant consequence (reward) or escape/avoid undesired, unpleasant consequence.
v Imitate positive models
v Be a part of a group or a valued member.
v Increase/decrease stimulation (arousal)
v Activate senses (taste, touch, smell, etc)
v Decrease hunger, thirst, discomfort. Etc.
v Maintain homeostasis, balance
v Maintain attention to something interesting or threatening
v Develop meaning or understanding
v Increase/decrease cognitive disequilibrium; uncertainty
v Solve a problem or make a decision
v Figure something out
v Eliminate threat or risk
v Increase/decrease affective dissonance
v Increase feeling good
v Decrease, feeling bad
v Increase security of or decrease threats to self-esteem
v Maintain levels of optimism and enthusiasm
v Meet individually developed/selected goal
v Obtain personal dream
v Develop or maintain self-efficacy
v Take control of one’s life
v Eliminate threats to meeting goal, obtaining dream
v Reduce others’ control of one’s life
v Understand purpose of one’s life
v Connect self to ultimate unknowns